The past 15 years of exceptionally severe water scarcity in the Islamic Republic of Iran have resulted in the desertification and salinity of formerly arable lands, drying out of Iranian lakes and rivers, and quickly shrinking groundwater resources, while water demand has risen, along with the size of the Iranian population, of which over 70% lives in urban areas now. We have aimed to discover the causes of water scarcity in the IR Iran and evaluated its social and economic impacts. First, we computed the Weighted Anomaly Standardized Precipitation (WASP) Index for the period of 1979-2014. To illustrate the social impact of water scarcity, we analyzed the current water risk for the twenty most populous Iranian cities, by employing the composite index approach to translate hydrological data into comprehensible indicators of water related risks, and made a projection for 2020-2030, by modeling potential changes in the future demand and supply of water. To demonstrate the economic impact of water scarcity, we evaluated the overall agricultural contribution to the IR Iran GDP. We have found that the 1999 severe drought in the IR Iran commenced a period of unusually dry conditions that is still ongoing. The rapidly growing Iranian urban populations presently experience a medium to extremely high overall water risk, with extremely high baseline water stress that, in part, is due to the lack of upstream protected lands. The relationship between baseline water stress and drought severity has been determined as weak, confirming that other factors than drought are equally or more important contributors to the existing water risk. Our projection calculations indicate that Iranian urban populations will continue to experience an extremely high water stress for the coming decade. Due to the fast growth of these populations as well as considerable rise of value added to the IR Iran GDP by other sectors of the national economy, the contribution of agricultural production to the national GDP has declined from about 25% to under 10% (although its total yield has risen considerably) during the past 30 years. This decrease has been directly proportional to the increased foreign food imports, dependency on the IR Iran oil exports and reduction in the non-oil exports. The main causes of water scarcity in the IR Iran appear to be due to climatic factors, insufficient environmental protection, and over-exploitation and mismanagement of water resources, especially by the agricultural sector. In conclusion, our study proposes anti-wasting water management action plan that recommends shifting the IR Iran government response to water scarcity from reactive survival strategies to proactive crisis prevention, with emphasis on safeguarding, monitoring, early warning, and effective step-by-step preparedness and readiness, and by laterally integrating water management between all levels of the IR Iran government, including local, regional and national, for a sustainable, resilient and prosperous economy of the Islamic Republic of Iran now and in the future.
|APA||VITKOVIC, S , SOLEIMANI, D . (2019). THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPACTS OF WATER SCARCITY IN THE IR IRAN. IJASOS- International E-journal of Advances in Social Sciences, 5 (13), 342-359. DOI: 10.18769/ijasos.531330|
|MLA||VITKOVIC, S , SOLEIMANI, D . "THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPACTS OF WATER SCARCITY IN THE IR IRAN". IJASOS- International E-journal of Advances in Social Sciences 5 (2019): 342-359 <http://ijasos.ocerintjournals.org/issue/44879/531330>|
|Chicago||VITKOVIC, S , SOLEIMANI, D . "THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPACTS OF WATER SCARCITY IN THE IR IRAN". IJASOS- International E-journal of Advances in Social Sciences 5 (2019): 342-359|
|RIS||TY - JOUR T1 - THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPACTS OF WATER SCARCITY IN THE IR IRAN AU - Scott VITKOVIC , Daryoush SOLEIMANI Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.18769/ijasos.531330 DO - 10.18769/ijasos.531330 T2 - IJASOS- International E-journal of Advances in Social Sciences JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 342 EP - 359 VL - 5 IS - 13 SN - -2411-183X M3 - doi: 10.18769/ijasos.531330 UR - https://doi.org/10.18769/ijasos.531330 Y2 - 2019 ER -|
|EndNote||%0 IJASOS- International E-journal of Advances in Social Sciences THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPACTS OF WATER SCARCITY IN THE IR IRAN %A Scott VITKOVIC , Daryoush SOLEIMANI %T THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPACTS OF WATER SCARCITY IN THE IR IRAN %D 2019 %J IJASOS- International E-journal of Advances in Social Sciences %P -2411-183X %V 5 %N 13 %R doi: 10.18769/ijasos.531330 %U 10.18769/ijasos.531330|
|ISNAD||VITKOVIC, Scott , SOLEIMANI, Daryoush . "THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPACTS OF WATER SCARCITY IN THE IR IRAN". IJASOS- International E-journal of Advances in Social Sciences 5 / 13 (April 2019): 342-359. https://doi.org/10.18769/ijasos.531330|