Year 2017, Volume 3 , Issue 7, Pages 214 - 222 2017-04-30


Reyhan SARIÇİÇEK [1] , Filiz ÇOPUROĞLU [2] , Mehmet AYTEKİN [3]

Women have begun to take part in business life intensively in the last century. However, despite the rapid rise in the number of women in business world, the proportion of women among senior managers and leaders has been very low. Research on the subject demonstrates that women face difficulties called ‘Glass Ceiling’, which cannot be seen apparently and at the same time which is hard to overcome in order to reach the senior executive positions. Glass ceiling refers to the difficulties that take place between women and the top management which do not allow them to move along their career regardless of their success and skills. There have been many theories about why women are underrepresented in senior management positions. If gathered under three headings, these are: Bias-centred, person-centred, and structural-centred theories. Bias-centred theories consider that the fundamental causes of inequalities are discrimination, stereotyping and prejudice by the greater part of the society or dominant group. Person-centred theories accept that differences in men's and women's personal characteristics and behaviour cause women to be unsuccessful at management positions. Structural-centred theories suppose that the main causes of inequality are the structural policies and customs of a social system, thus social structure dominated by men raise the discrimination against women.

In this paper ‘Glass Ceiling Syndrome’ has been researched, the related literature on the subject has been investigated and the results were tried to be tested by a field survey. Within the scope of the study, a questionnaire was developed to determine the perception and attitudes of women who are working in a research hospital in Izmir on "Glass Ceiling Syndrome”. The glass ceiling was analysed at nine dimensions in the questionnaire; these are: barriers stemming from top management, negative prejudices against women, family life, sex discrimination, women’s rise in their career, organizational culture and politics, informal communication networks, mentoring and occupational discrimination.

Research has shown that women are uncomfortable with prejudices about themselves and now they are ready for senior management positions. Women have been also more conscious day by day and they have been trying to break the glass ceiling which is like a barrier on their career. Eventually it can be said that the increase in educational and cultural level of the society will be the main factor on breaking the glass ceiling.
Glass Ceiling Syndrome, Female Managers, Gender in Work Life, Gender Discrimination
  • Anafarta, N., Sarvan F. and Yapıcı N. (2008). Glass Ceiling Perception of Women Managers at Boarding Firms: A Research in Antalya. The University of Akdeniz Faculty of Administrative Sciences Magazine, (15)111–137. Barutçugil, İ. (2002). Woman Manager in Business Life. Career Publish, İstanbul. Beck, A. J. (2003). Through The Looking-Glass Ceiling: The Advancement of Women Administrators and Women Facility in an Institution of Higher Education. (Published Doctorate’s Thesis), The University of Texas, Austin. Çelikten, M. (2004). Women in the Seat of Principal Kayseri Example. The University of Erciyes the Faculty of Social Sciences Magazine, (17) 91-118. Deemer, C., Frederics. N. (2006). Dance on Glass Ceiling, Optimist, İstanbul. Demiray, H. T. (2007). Social Sex and Secretarial, VI. National Bureau Management and Secretarial Congress, Ankara, 343-351. Güldal, D. (2006). A Research about the Factors that Motivate and Demotivate Women Managers (Published Master’s Thesis), Çukurova University Institution of Liberal Arts Department of Business. Harcar, T., Çakır, Ö., Sürgevil, O. and Budak. G (2008). Violence Against Women and the Situation of Violence Against Women in Turkey. Community and Democracy Magazine, Volume:2, Number:4, p.51-70. Hopman, H. A. and Lord, B. L. (2009) The Glass Ceiling and Women in Accounting. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Accounting Conference, Innsbruck, Austria, 9-11 August 2009: 1-41. Karaca, A. (2007). Career Obstacles for Women Managers: A Research with Application about Glass Ceiling Syndrome. (Published Master’s Thesis), The University of Selçuk Institute of Social Sciences Department of Management and Organisation. Lockwood, N.R. (2004). The Glass Ceiling: Domestic and International Perspectives. Mescon, M. H., Courtland B. L. and Thilll. J. V. (2001). Business Today, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Mestçioğlu, Ö. (2016) .Women as Manager. (04.02.2016) Onay, M. (2009). Consequences of Sexual Discrimination and an Empirical Research about the Subject. 17. Book of National Management and Organisation Congress, Eskişehir, 21-23 May 2009, p. 285-291. Öğüt, A. (2006). The Hardships for Women Managers and Initiation in Turkey: Glass Ceiling Syndrome.C.O.M.U. Initiation and Development Magazine, Volume:1, Number:1, p. 56–78. Palmer, M. and Hyman. B. (1993) Trans. Vedat Üner, Women in Management, Rota Publish, İstanbul. Ruderman, M. N. and Ohlott. P. J. (2005) Trans. Sinem Özer, Control Your Fate Successful Formula of Working Woman, Optimist Publisher, İstanbul. Sezen, Bayram. (2008) “Glass Ceiling Obstacle for Women Managers in Business; Research at Middle and High Scaled Hotels”, (Published Master’s Thesis), The University of Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Faculty of Social Sciences Department of Tourism Business. Yelkikalkan, N. (2006). Role of Sex in Successful Initiation, Women Initiates. C.O.M.U. Initiation and Development Magazine, Cilt:1, Sayı:1, ss. 45–55. Yoğun Erçen, A. E. (2008). Strategies of Women in Overcoming Glass Ceiling- An Insight at Turkish High Scale Businesses, (Published Doctorate’s Thesis), The University of Çukurova Institute of Social Sciences. (04.02.2016)
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles

Author: Reyhan SARIÇİÇEK
Country: Turkey

Author: Filiz ÇOPUROĞLU
Country: Turkey

Author: Mehmet AYTEKİN
Country: Turkey


Publication Date : April 30, 2017

EndNote %0 International E-Journal of Advances in Social Sciences WOMEN WORKFORCE LOOKING THROUGH THE GLASS CEILING %A Reyhan SARIÇİÇEK , Filiz ÇOPUROĞLU , Mehmet AYTEKİN %T WOMEN WORKFORCE LOOKING THROUGH THE GLASS CEILING %D 2017 %J IJASOS- International E-journal of Advances in Social Sciences %P 2411-183X-2411-183X %V 3 %N 7 %R doi: 10.18769/ijasos.309678 %U 10.18769/ijasos.309678