Year 2016, Volume 2 , Issue 4, Pages 283 - 288 2016-04-22

ETIOLOGY OF AUTISM AND PARENTS OF AUTISTIC CHILDREN

Elona Mano [1]


There is an upward trend of rates in recent decades of autistic children. Since the Kanner`s initial description of autism (1943) the increase in rate has led to dramatic claims. Several factors complicate the interpretation of the apparent increase, including changes in diagnostic practice, earlier diagnosis, increased awareness of the disorder, issues of study design and case ascertainment. A common source of confusion has been the tendency to mistake prevalence for incidence; prevalence refers to cases with the disorder at a specified time whereas incidence refers to the rate of new cases of the disorder within a period of time. The undiscovered cause of autism is the focus of many studies today. In order to cope with the stressful situation, it is very important for parents of autistic children to find some explanation for their child`s developmental disorder. The pace of research has increased dramatically in recent years. A lot of studies have focused on bringing together work from diverse areas such as psychological and brain mechanisms and the social deficit of autism. Despite the collaborative studies on diagnosis, genetics, psychopharmacology, treatment and neuroimaging, however, much is left to do. This study involved mothers and fathers of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Three focus groups were formed. The interview was conducted in an informal and natural way where respondents were free to give their own views. Members of groups described feelings of sadness and anger, but they were eager to help their children. It seems that the etiology explanation from parents` point of view is connected with nature-nurture problem.

Keywords: Autism, Parents, Etiology, Focus group

  • Bronfenbrenner, U, (1979), The ecology of human development, Boston: Harvard University.
  • Bristol, M. M. (1984). Family resources and successful adaptation to autistic children. In E. Schopler & G. B. Mesibov (Eds), The effects of autism on the family (pp. 289-310). New York: Plenum Press.
  • Dumas, J.E., Wolf, L.C., Fisman, S.N., & Culligan, A. (1991). Parenting stress, child behavior problems, and dysphoria in parents of children with autism, Down syndrome, behavior disorders, and normal development. Exceptionality, 2, 97-110.
  • Dunbar, R. (2008) Taking evolutionary psychology seriously. The psychologist, 21(4), 304–6.
  • De Stefano F., Price S.C., Weintraub S. E. Journal of Pediatrics 2004. www.jpeds.com
  • Evans M et al. The British Journal of General Practice.2001 51 (472):904-910
  • Gross R. 2009. Themes, Issues and debates in Psychology. Hodder Education. London.UK.
  • Grinker, R. R. (2007), Unstrange Minds, Basic Books
  • Krueger RA & Casey MA (2000) Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research, 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage publications
  • Krueger RA (1994) Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Kirby, R. and Radford, J. (1976) Individual Differences. London: Methuen
  • Kanner, L. (1943) Autistic Disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child 2,217-250.
  • McGurk, H. (1975) Growing and Changing. London: Methuen.
  • Rose, S. (2005) The 21st Century Brain: Explaining, Mending and Manipulating the Mind. London: Vintage Books.
  • Tupja, E. (1009). Kur dhimbja premton dashuri. OMBRA GVG, pg.29.
  • Fombonne E. The prevalence of autism, Journal of the American Medical Association. 2003b; 289:1–3. [PubMed]
  • Volkmar, R. F., Lord C., Bailey, A., Schultz T. R., Klin A. (2004) Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 45,1,(135-170)
  • Elsabbagh, M. et al,. 2012 Global Prevalence of Autism and other PDD. (October 2015) pubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22495912
  • Autism Speaks. www.autismspeak.org 2015
Primary Language en
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Author: Elona Mano

Dates

Publication Date : April 22, 2016

EndNote %0 International E-Journal of Advances in Social Sciences ETIOLOGY OF AUTISM AND PARENTS OF AUTISTIC CHILDREN %A Elona Mano %T ETIOLOGY OF AUTISM AND PARENTS OF AUTISTIC CHILDREN %D 2016 %J IJASOS- International E-journal of Advances in Social Sciences %P 2411-183X-2411-183X %V 2 %N 4 %R %U