Year 2016, Volume 2 , Issue 4, Pages 70 - 79 2016-04-22


Harison M. Sidek [1] , Hazleena Baharun [2] , Noor Saazai Mat Saad [3] , Mohd Muzhafar Idrus [4]

Within the context of reading in English, fluency plays an important role with regards to readers’ reading comprehension performance. Deficit in reading fluency may affect the efficiency of phonological processing, which in turn affects reading comprehension performance. Within the realm of English as foreign language (EFL) reading, the role of reading fluency is of similar importance. Considering the significance of reading fluency within the context of EFL reading comprehension performance, the current pilot study attempted to analyze reading fluency performance in a non-rich target language environment for the purpose of informing EFL reading comprehension instruction with regards to reading fluency. The participant was a middle school aged, EFL reader who received EFL reading comprehension instruction for the period of seven years at the time the study was conducted but had never received phonics instruction. The data in this study were acquired within the period of two months. The data collection was spread within the period of two months in order to acquire standardized performance and to avoid contamination. Two reading fluency diagnosis instruments were used to evaluate the participant’s fluency: Fluency rate per minute for grade-level and non-grade level texts and miscue analysis. The texts used in this study were the ones provided in Leslie and Caldwell’s Qualitative Reading Inventory IV. The findings show that although the participant in this study had never received any phonics instruction, he was not able to read at the grade-level and above grade-level fluency rates. The findings from the miscue analysis show that the participant was not able to meet the required grade-level accuracy. The findings are discussed within the realm of reading instruction in the foreign language reading context and with regards to their implications in EFL reading comprehension instruction.

Keywords: Fluency, EFL foreign language, reading, miscue analysis

  • Beach, D.W. (2005). The Effects of a School District’s Kindergarten Readiness Summer Program on Phonological Awareness Skills of at-Risk Prekindergarten Students: A Regression Discontinuity Analysis. Dissertation Abstract International. The Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol.65. ISSN: 0419-4209
  • Chall, J. S. (1996). Stages of Reading Development (2nd ed.). Fort Worth, Tex.: Harcourt Brace.
  • Cooper, D., & Kiger, N. (2003). Literacy-Helping children construct meaning (5th ed.), New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  • Coyne, M.D., & Harn. B. A. (2006). Promoting Beginning Reading Success Through Meaningful Assessment of Early Literacy Skills. Psychology in the Schools. 43(1), 33-43.
  • Elliott, J., Lee, S. W., & Tollefson, N. (2001). A Reliability and Validity Study of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills-Modified. School Psychology Review, 30(1), 33-49.
  • Fien, F.J. (2005). An Examination of School and Individual Student Level Predictors of Successful Reading and Reading-Related Outcomes for Kindergarten and First Grade Students: A Comparison of Two Models of School wide Reading Reform. Dissertation Abstract International. The Humanities and Social Sciences, 65. ISSN: 0419-4209
  • Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Hosp, M., & Jenkins, J.R. (2001). Oral Reading Fluency as an Indicator of Reading Competence: A Theoretical, Empirical, and Historical Analysis. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, 239-256.
  • Kuhn, M. R., & Stahl, S. A. (2003). Fluency: A review of Developmental and Remedial Practices. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 3-21.
  • Nathan, R., & Stanovich, K. (1991). The Causes and Consequences of Differences in Reading Fluency. Theory Into Practice, 30, 176-184.
  • Rasinski, T., Blachowicz, C., & Lems, K. (2006). Fluency Instruction. Research-Based Best Practices. Guilford Press.
  • Sidek, H. M (2009). Reading attitudes: A case study in Malaysia. In Shafaei, A. & M. Nejati (Eds.), Annals of Language Teaching, (pp. 209-215), Boca Raton, Florida: Universal-Publishers.
  • Sidek, H. M. (2008) Second language reading: Problems, diagnosis & instruction. Negeri Sembilan: USIM Publisher.
  • Sidek, H. M. (2010a). An analysis of the EFL secondary reading curriculum in Malaysia: Approaches to reading and preparation for higher education. Doctor of Philosophy, University of Pittsburgh.
  • Sidek, H. M. (2012a). EFL textbook analysis: A case study. Language and Literacy, 14(3), 27-45.
  • Sidek, H. M. (2012b). EFL reading instruction: Communicative task-based approach. International Journal of Instruction, 5(2), 109-120.
  • Sidek, H. M. (2014). English Language Reading Preparation for Higher Education: An Evaluation of the Form Four English Language Textbook and Instructional Design. Journal of Social Science and Humanities (PERTANIKA) 22(2), 539-558.
  • Sidek, H., Abdullah, H., Rahim, H. & Yuslina, M. (2014). ESL reading instruction: Alignment of curriculum implementation. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 118, 442-449.
  • Sidek, H.M. (2010b). Reading Instruction: Theory and Practice. Nilai: Penerbit USIM.
  • Taguchi, E., Takayasu-Maass, M., & Gorsuch, G.J. (2004). Developing reading fluency in EFL: How assisted repeated reading and extensive reading affect fluency development. Reading in a Foreign Language, 16 (2).
  • Watson, J. (2005). Keeping Pace with K-12 Online learning: A Review of State-Level Policy and Practice. Naperville, IL: Learning Point Associates. Retrieved November 1, 2005,
Primary Language en
Journal Section Articles

Author: Harison M. Sidek

Author: Hazleena Baharun

Author: Noor Saazai Mat Saad

Author: Mohd Muzhafar Idrus


Publication Date : April 22, 2016

EndNote %0 International E-Journal of Advances in Social Sciences ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE READING FLUENCY ANALYSIS: A PILOT STUDY %A Harison M. Sidek , Hazleena Baharun , Noor Saazai Mat Saad , Mohd Muzhafar Idrus %T ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE READING FLUENCY ANALYSIS: A PILOT STUDY %D 2016 %J IJASOS- International E-journal of Advances in Social Sciences %P 2411-183X-2411-183X %V 2 %N 4 %R %U