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Year 2016, Volume 2, Issue 5, 591 - 597, 26.08.2016

Abstract

References

  • Abadi, F. H., Muhamad, T. A., & Salamuddin, N. (2010). Energy expenditure through walking: Meta analysis on gender and age. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 7, 512-521.
  • Abdul-Rahim, H.F, Holmboe-Ottesen, G., Stene, L. C. M., Husseini, A., Giacaman, R., Jervell, J., & Bjertness, E. (2003). Obesity in a rural and an urban Palestinian West Bank population. International Journal of Obesity. 27(1), 140–146.
  • Abu Saad, H., Kalmi, Z. N., Taib, M., Nasir, M., Yassin, Z., & Tabata, I. (2014). Comparison of physical activity prevalence among university students. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), steps/day, and accelerometer in a sample of government employees in Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Science and Technology, 22(2), 401-417.
  • Alghadir, A.H., Gabr, S.A., & Al-Eisa, E. (2015). Physical activity and lifestyle effects on bone mineral density among young adults: sociodemographic and biochemical analysis. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27, 2261-2270.
  • Arabi, A., Nabulsi, M., Maalouf, J., Choucair, M., Khalifé, H., Vieth, R., & Fuleihan, G. E. H. (2004). Bone mineral density by age, gender, pubertal stages, and socioeconomic status in healthy Lebanese children and adolescents. Bone, 35(5), 1169-1179.
  • Arzu, D., Tuzun, E. H., & Eker, L. (2006). Perceived barriers to physical activity in university students.Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 5(4), 615.
  • Aslam, M., Saeed, A., Pasha, G. R., & Altaf, S. (2010). Gender differences of body mass index in adults of Pakistan: A case study of Multan city. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 9(2), 162-166.
  • Barry, D. W., & Kohrt, W. M. (2008). BMD decreases over the course of a year in competitive male cyclists. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 23(4), 484-491.
  • Barry, D.W., & Kohrt, W.M. (2008). Exercise and preservation of bone health. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation Preview, 28, 153-162.
  • Bennell, K. L., Malcolm, S. A., Khan, K. M., Thomas, S. A., Reid, S. J., Brukner, P. D., & Wark, J. D. (1997). Bone mass and bone turnover in power athletes, endurance athletes, and controls. Journal of Health and Science. 20(5), 477-484.
  • Birli, J., Zhang, N., & McCoy, V. A. (2012). Eating disorders among male college students. VISTAS Online, 4(101), 1-15.
  • Buckley, G. J., Lange, J. E., & Peterson, E. A. (Eds.). (2014). Investing in global health systems: Sustaining gains, transforming lives. National Academies Press
  • Elsawy, N. A., Header, E. A. (2014). Effect of excessive movement on bone fracture. Journal of sports medicine. 23(12), 5110-5119.
  • Haskell, W. L., Lee, I. M., Pate, R. R., Powell, K. E., Blair, S. N., Franklin, B. A., & Bauman, A. (2007). Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation, 116(9), 1081.
  • Kamarul, T., Ahmad, T. S., & Loh, W. Y. C. (2006). Normal hand grip strength in the adult Malaysian population. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery, 14(2), 172-71.
  • Keunn, M. (2007). Relationship of eating attitude on bone health. Journal of Sport and health. 4(3), 66-71.
  • Kuan PX , Ho HL , Shuhaili MS, Siti AA & Gudum HR. (2015). Gender differences in body mass index, body weight perception and weight loss strategies among undergraduates in Universiti Malaysia Sarawak. Journal of Nutrition, 17(1), 67-75, 2011
  • Kubaisy, W., Mohamad, M., Ismail, Z., & Abdullah, N. N. (2015). Gender Differences: Motivations for performing physical exercise among adults in Shah Alam. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 202, 522-530.
  • Kruger, M. C., Todd, J. M., Schollum, L. M., Kuhn-Sherlock, B., McLean, D. W., & Wylie, K. (2013). Bone health comparison in seven Asian countries using calcaneal ultrasound. BMC musculoskeletal disorders, 14(1), 1.
  • Lim, J. H., Bae, H. S., Lee, S. M., & Ahn, H. S. (2008). Dietary and non-dietary factors related to bone mineral density in female college students. Korean Journal of Community Nutrition, 13(3), 418-425.
  • Oommen, A., AlZahrani, I., Shoro, A., Alruwaili, J., & Aboalseel, B. (2014, April). Relationship between body mass index and bone mineral density in Saudi women above 40 years with vitamin D deficiency. In Osteoporosis International 25, 196-196.
  • Paniagua, M. A., Malphurs, J. E., & Samos, L. F. (2006). BMI and low bone mass in an elderly male nursing home population. Clinical interventions in aging, 1(3), 283.
  • Poh, B. K., Safiah, M. Y., Tahir, A., Haslinda, M. S., Norazlin, N. S., Norimah, A. K., & Fatimah, S. (2010). Physical Activity Pattern and Energy Expenditure of Malaysian Adults: Findings from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS). Malaysian Journal of nutrition, (16), 13-37.
  • Pon, H., D., coly, K. (2004). Health nutrition intake among adolescent. Journal of Nutrition of Health. 5 (2), 55-66.
  • Roblin, L. (2007). Childhood obesity: food, nutrient, and eating-habit trends and influences. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 32(4), 635-645.
  • Salamat, M. R., Salamat, A. H., Abedi, I., & Janghorbani, M. (2013). Relationship between weight, body mass index, and bone mineral density in men referred for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan in Isfahan, Iran. Journal of osteoporosis.4 (3), 55-66.
  • Schvey, N. A., Tanofsky-Kraff, M., Yanoff, L. B., Checchi, J. M., Shomaker, L. B., Brady, S., & Yanovski, J. A. (2009). Disordered-eating attitudes in relation to bone mineral density and markers of bone turnover in overweight adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45(1), 33-39.
  • Sham, F., Shdaifat, E., Majid, N., Khairudin, F., Zainol, N., & Majid, S. (2013). Knowledge and perception of salcium intake among students in University Technology MARA. International Journal of Public Health Research, 3(2), 370-375.
  • Sokoloff, N., Eguiguren, M. L., Wargo, K., Ackerman, K. E., Baskaran, C., Singhal, V., & Misra, M. (2015). Bone parameters in relation to attitudes and feelings associated with disordered eating in oligo‐amenorrheic athletes, eumenorrheic athletes, and nonathletes. Journal of International Eating Disorders. 2 (7), 128-133.
  • Sue, K., Wan, L. (2012). Eating attitude effect on their physical appearance. Journal of Helath Nutritions. 8 (2), 44-55.
  • Wan, A., N., Wan, J., Mohd, A., Foo, L. (2010). Knowledge, attitude and dietary and lifestyle practices on bone health status among undergraduate university students in Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan. Journal of Health and Environment. 1(1), 1-7.
  • Zalilah, M. S., & Zaidah, M. Y. (2004). Correlates of children's eating attitude test scores (CHEAT) among a sample of female primary school children. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 13.

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Year 2016, Volume 2, Issue 5, 591 - 597, 26.08.2016

Abstract

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References

  • Abadi, F. H., Muhamad, T. A., & Salamuddin, N. (2010). Energy expenditure through walking: Meta analysis on gender and age. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 7, 512-521.
  • Abdul-Rahim, H.F, Holmboe-Ottesen, G., Stene, L. C. M., Husseini, A., Giacaman, R., Jervell, J., & Bjertness, E. (2003). Obesity in a rural and an urban Palestinian West Bank population. International Journal of Obesity. 27(1), 140–146.
  • Abu Saad, H., Kalmi, Z. N., Taib, M., Nasir, M., Yassin, Z., & Tabata, I. (2014). Comparison of physical activity prevalence among university students. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), steps/day, and accelerometer in a sample of government employees in Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Science and Technology, 22(2), 401-417.
  • Alghadir, A.H., Gabr, S.A., & Al-Eisa, E. (2015). Physical activity and lifestyle effects on bone mineral density among young adults: sociodemographic and biochemical analysis. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27, 2261-2270.
  • Arabi, A., Nabulsi, M., Maalouf, J., Choucair, M., Khalifé, H., Vieth, R., & Fuleihan, G. E. H. (2004). Bone mineral density by age, gender, pubertal stages, and socioeconomic status in healthy Lebanese children and adolescents. Bone, 35(5), 1169-1179.
  • Arzu, D., Tuzun, E. H., & Eker, L. (2006). Perceived barriers to physical activity in university students.Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 5(4), 615.
  • Aslam, M., Saeed, A., Pasha, G. R., & Altaf, S. (2010). Gender differences of body mass index in adults of Pakistan: A case study of Multan city. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 9(2), 162-166.
  • Barry, D. W., & Kohrt, W. M. (2008). BMD decreases over the course of a year in competitive male cyclists. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 23(4), 484-491.
  • Barry, D.W., & Kohrt, W.M. (2008). Exercise and preservation of bone health. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation Preview, 28, 153-162.
  • Bennell, K. L., Malcolm, S. A., Khan, K. M., Thomas, S. A., Reid, S. J., Brukner, P. D., & Wark, J. D. (1997). Bone mass and bone turnover in power athletes, endurance athletes, and controls. Journal of Health and Science. 20(5), 477-484.
  • Birli, J., Zhang, N., & McCoy, V. A. (2012). Eating disorders among male college students. VISTAS Online, 4(101), 1-15.
  • Buckley, G. J., Lange, J. E., & Peterson, E. A. (Eds.). (2014). Investing in global health systems: Sustaining gains, transforming lives. National Academies Press
  • Elsawy, N. A., Header, E. A. (2014). Effect of excessive movement on bone fracture. Journal of sports medicine. 23(12), 5110-5119.
  • Haskell, W. L., Lee, I. M., Pate, R. R., Powell, K. E., Blair, S. N., Franklin, B. A., & Bauman, A. (2007). Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation, 116(9), 1081.
  • Kamarul, T., Ahmad, T. S., & Loh, W. Y. C. (2006). Normal hand grip strength in the adult Malaysian population. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery, 14(2), 172-71.
  • Keunn, M. (2007). Relationship of eating attitude on bone health. Journal of Sport and health. 4(3), 66-71.
  • Kuan PX , Ho HL , Shuhaili MS, Siti AA & Gudum HR. (2015). Gender differences in body mass index, body weight perception and weight loss strategies among undergraduates in Universiti Malaysia Sarawak. Journal of Nutrition, 17(1), 67-75, 2011
  • Kubaisy, W., Mohamad, M., Ismail, Z., & Abdullah, N. N. (2015). Gender Differences: Motivations for performing physical exercise among adults in Shah Alam. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 202, 522-530.
  • Kruger, M. C., Todd, J. M., Schollum, L. M., Kuhn-Sherlock, B., McLean, D. W., & Wylie, K. (2013). Bone health comparison in seven Asian countries using calcaneal ultrasound. BMC musculoskeletal disorders, 14(1), 1.
  • Lim, J. H., Bae, H. S., Lee, S. M., & Ahn, H. S. (2008). Dietary and non-dietary factors related to bone mineral density in female college students. Korean Journal of Community Nutrition, 13(3), 418-425.
  • Oommen, A., AlZahrani, I., Shoro, A., Alruwaili, J., & Aboalseel, B. (2014, April). Relationship between body mass index and bone mineral density in Saudi women above 40 years with vitamin D deficiency. In Osteoporosis International 25, 196-196.
  • Paniagua, M. A., Malphurs, J. E., & Samos, L. F. (2006). BMI and low bone mass in an elderly male nursing home population. Clinical interventions in aging, 1(3), 283.
  • Poh, B. K., Safiah, M. Y., Tahir, A., Haslinda, M. S., Norazlin, N. S., Norimah, A. K., & Fatimah, S. (2010). Physical Activity Pattern and Energy Expenditure of Malaysian Adults: Findings from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS). Malaysian Journal of nutrition, (16), 13-37.
  • Pon, H., D., coly, K. (2004). Health nutrition intake among adolescent. Journal of Nutrition of Health. 5 (2), 55-66.
  • Roblin, L. (2007). Childhood obesity: food, nutrient, and eating-habit trends and influences. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 32(4), 635-645.
  • Salamat, M. R., Salamat, A. H., Abedi, I., & Janghorbani, M. (2013). Relationship between weight, body mass index, and bone mineral density in men referred for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan in Isfahan, Iran. Journal of osteoporosis.4 (3), 55-66.
  • Schvey, N. A., Tanofsky-Kraff, M., Yanoff, L. B., Checchi, J. M., Shomaker, L. B., Brady, S., & Yanovski, J. A. (2009). Disordered-eating attitudes in relation to bone mineral density and markers of bone turnover in overweight adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45(1), 33-39.
  • Sham, F., Shdaifat, E., Majid, N., Khairudin, F., Zainol, N., & Majid, S. (2013). Knowledge and perception of salcium intake among students in University Technology MARA. International Journal of Public Health Research, 3(2), 370-375.
  • Sokoloff, N., Eguiguren, M. L., Wargo, K., Ackerman, K. E., Baskaran, C., Singhal, V., & Misra, M. (2015). Bone parameters in relation to attitudes and feelings associated with disordered eating in oligo‐amenorrheic athletes, eumenorrheic athletes, and nonathletes. Journal of International Eating Disorders. 2 (7), 128-133.
  • Sue, K., Wan, L. (2012). Eating attitude effect on their physical appearance. Journal of Helath Nutritions. 8 (2), 44-55.
  • Wan, A., N., Wan, J., Mohd, A., Foo, L. (2010). Knowledge, attitude and dietary and lifestyle practices on bone health status among undergraduate university students in Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan. Journal of Health and Environment. 1(1), 1-7.
  • Zalilah, M. S., & Zaidah, M. Y. (2004). Correlates of children's eating attitude test scores (CHEAT) among a sample of female primary school children. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 13.

EFFECTS OF BODY MASS INDEX (BMI), EATING ATTITUDE AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON BONE HEALTH AMONG UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN MALAYSIA

Year 2016, Volume 2, Issue 5, 591 - 597, 26.08.2016

Abstract

Healthy and strong bones form the basis for a dynamic and energetic life. However, Malaysian university students still lack of knowledge towards positive bone health status and osteoporosis prevention and show a poor practice of healthy lifestyle. Therefore, this study was done to examine the relationship of eating attitude and physical activity on bone health among undergraduate students from the Faculty of Educational Studies in Universiti Putra Malaysia. A correlational study design was conducted to 281 undergraduate students aged 18 to 27 years old. The respondents were randomly chosen based on the stratified and cluster sampling technique. In this study, the eating attitudes were assessed using EAT-26 while, the physical activity level of the respondents was evaluated by using a shorter version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF). Bone Mineral Density (BMD) of the respondents was measured using calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) by using Sonost-3000 machine. From the Pearson correlation analysis, there was a negative and weak relationship of eating attitude and BMD (r= -.218) and strong relationship between physical activity and BMD (r=.731). Thus, the result of this study gives better information on how physical activities are essential to promote an improvement in BMD. A better understanding of the interactions of all these variables in this study will relate to positive bone health status and osteoporosis prevention among young adults, especially among the university students.

Keywords: Bone Mineral Density (BMD), Eating Attitude, Physical Activity, Osteoporosis.

References

  • Abadi, F. H., Muhamad, T. A., & Salamuddin, N. (2010). Energy expenditure through walking: Meta analysis on gender and age. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 7, 512-521.
  • Abdul-Rahim, H.F, Holmboe-Ottesen, G., Stene, L. C. M., Husseini, A., Giacaman, R., Jervell, J., & Bjertness, E. (2003). Obesity in a rural and an urban Palestinian West Bank population. International Journal of Obesity. 27(1), 140–146.
  • Abu Saad, H., Kalmi, Z. N., Taib, M., Nasir, M., Yassin, Z., & Tabata, I. (2014). Comparison of physical activity prevalence among university students. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), steps/day, and accelerometer in a sample of government employees in Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Science and Technology, 22(2), 401-417.
  • Alghadir, A.H., Gabr, S.A., & Al-Eisa, E. (2015). Physical activity and lifestyle effects on bone mineral density among young adults: sociodemographic and biochemical analysis. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27, 2261-2270.
  • Arabi, A., Nabulsi, M., Maalouf, J., Choucair, M., Khalifé, H., Vieth, R., & Fuleihan, G. E. H. (2004). Bone mineral density by age, gender, pubertal stages, and socioeconomic status in healthy Lebanese children and adolescents. Bone, 35(5), 1169-1179.
  • Arzu, D., Tuzun, E. H., & Eker, L. (2006). Perceived barriers to physical activity in university students.Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 5(4), 615.
  • Aslam, M., Saeed, A., Pasha, G. R., & Altaf, S. (2010). Gender differences of body mass index in adults of Pakistan: A case study of Multan city. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 9(2), 162-166.
  • Barry, D. W., & Kohrt, W. M. (2008). BMD decreases over the course of a year in competitive male cyclists. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 23(4), 484-491.
  • Barry, D.W., & Kohrt, W.M. (2008). Exercise and preservation of bone health. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation Preview, 28, 153-162.
  • Bennell, K. L., Malcolm, S. A., Khan, K. M., Thomas, S. A., Reid, S. J., Brukner, P. D., & Wark, J. D. (1997). Bone mass and bone turnover in power athletes, endurance athletes, and controls. Journal of Health and Science. 20(5), 477-484.
  • Birli, J., Zhang, N., & McCoy, V. A. (2012). Eating disorders among male college students. VISTAS Online, 4(101), 1-15.
  • Buckley, G. J., Lange, J. E., & Peterson, E. A. (Eds.). (2014). Investing in global health systems: Sustaining gains, transforming lives. National Academies Press
  • Elsawy, N. A., Header, E. A. (2014). Effect of excessive movement on bone fracture. Journal of sports medicine. 23(12), 5110-5119.
  • Haskell, W. L., Lee, I. M., Pate, R. R., Powell, K. E., Blair, S. N., Franklin, B. A., & Bauman, A. (2007). Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation, 116(9), 1081.
  • Kamarul, T., Ahmad, T. S., & Loh, W. Y. C. (2006). Normal hand grip strength in the adult Malaysian population. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery, 14(2), 172-71.
  • Keunn, M. (2007). Relationship of eating attitude on bone health. Journal of Sport and health. 4(3), 66-71.
  • Kuan PX , Ho HL , Shuhaili MS, Siti AA & Gudum HR. (2015). Gender differences in body mass index, body weight perception and weight loss strategies among undergraduates in Universiti Malaysia Sarawak. Journal of Nutrition, 17(1), 67-75, 2011
  • Kubaisy, W., Mohamad, M., Ismail, Z., & Abdullah, N. N. (2015). Gender Differences: Motivations for performing physical exercise among adults in Shah Alam. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 202, 522-530.
  • Kruger, M. C., Todd, J. M., Schollum, L. M., Kuhn-Sherlock, B., McLean, D. W., & Wylie, K. (2013). Bone health comparison in seven Asian countries using calcaneal ultrasound. BMC musculoskeletal disorders, 14(1), 1.
  • Lim, J. H., Bae, H. S., Lee, S. M., & Ahn, H. S. (2008). Dietary and non-dietary factors related to bone mineral density in female college students. Korean Journal of Community Nutrition, 13(3), 418-425.
  • Oommen, A., AlZahrani, I., Shoro, A., Alruwaili, J., & Aboalseel, B. (2014, April). Relationship between body mass index and bone mineral density in Saudi women above 40 years with vitamin D deficiency. In Osteoporosis International 25, 196-196.
  • Paniagua, M. A., Malphurs, J. E., & Samos, L. F. (2006). BMI and low bone mass in an elderly male nursing home population. Clinical interventions in aging, 1(3), 283.
  • Poh, B. K., Safiah, M. Y., Tahir, A., Haslinda, M. S., Norazlin, N. S., Norimah, A. K., & Fatimah, S. (2010). Physical Activity Pattern and Energy Expenditure of Malaysian Adults: Findings from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS). Malaysian Journal of nutrition, (16), 13-37.
  • Pon, H., D., coly, K. (2004). Health nutrition intake among adolescent. Journal of Nutrition of Health. 5 (2), 55-66.
  • Roblin, L. (2007). Childhood obesity: food, nutrient, and eating-habit trends and influences. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 32(4), 635-645.
  • Salamat, M. R., Salamat, A. H., Abedi, I., & Janghorbani, M. (2013). Relationship between weight, body mass index, and bone mineral density in men referred for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan in Isfahan, Iran. Journal of osteoporosis.4 (3), 55-66.
  • Schvey, N. A., Tanofsky-Kraff, M., Yanoff, L. B., Checchi, J. M., Shomaker, L. B., Brady, S., & Yanovski, J. A. (2009). Disordered-eating attitudes in relation to bone mineral density and markers of bone turnover in overweight adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45(1), 33-39.
  • Sham, F., Shdaifat, E., Majid, N., Khairudin, F., Zainol, N., & Majid, S. (2013). Knowledge and perception of salcium intake among students in University Technology MARA. International Journal of Public Health Research, 3(2), 370-375.
  • Sokoloff, N., Eguiguren, M. L., Wargo, K., Ackerman, K. E., Baskaran, C., Singhal, V., & Misra, M. (2015). Bone parameters in relation to attitudes and feelings associated with disordered eating in oligo‐amenorrheic athletes, eumenorrheic athletes, and nonathletes. Journal of International Eating Disorders. 2 (7), 128-133.
  • Sue, K., Wan, L. (2012). Eating attitude effect on their physical appearance. Journal of Helath Nutritions. 8 (2), 44-55.
  • Wan, A., N., Wan, J., Mohd, A., Foo, L. (2010). Knowledge, attitude and dietary and lifestyle practices on bone health status among undergraduate university students in Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan. Journal of Health and Environment. 1(1), 1-7.
  • Zalilah, M. S., & Zaidah, M. Y. (2004). Correlates of children's eating attitude test scores (CHEAT) among a sample of female primary school children. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 13.

Details

Primary Language English
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Roxana OMAR DEV This is me


Ewiwe HENRY This is me

Publication Date August 26, 2016
Application Date September 9, 2016
Acceptance Date September 7, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2016, Volume 2, Issue 5

Cite

EndNote %0 IJASOS- International E-journal of Advances in Social Sciences EFFECTS OF BODY MASS INDEX (BMI), EATING ATTITUDE AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON BONE HEALTH AMONG UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN MALAYSIA %A Roxana Omar Dev , Ewiwe Henry %T EFFECTS OF BODY MASS INDEX (BMI), EATING ATTITUDE AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON BONE HEALTH AMONG UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN MALAYSIA %D 2016 %J IJASOS- International E-journal of Advances in Social Sciences %P 2411-183X-2411-183X %V 2 %N 5 %R %U

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