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Sexual Harassment in Malaysian Educational Institutions: Causes and Solutions

Yıl 2015, Cilt 1, Sayı 1, 17 - 26, 18.04.2015
https://doi.org/10.18769/ijasos.38340

Öz

The vitality of school in proffering solutions to the societal challenges cannot be underrated. However, school as a hub and pivot place in addressing multifarious challenges in our society is faced with some social ills such as bullying and sexual harassment. More profusely, an escalation of sexual harassment in schools’ and on campuses cannot be denied. More copiously, of greater challenges in our contemporary period is inadequate and ineffective measure to curb prevalence of sexual harassment. More so, there are few existing guidelines in combating sexual harassment such as the Penal Code, Employment Act and the Code of Conduct for Industrial Harmony. However, there is yet to be a proper academic focus providing a deep investigation and crystal clear explanation in drastically minimizing or eradicating the prevalence of sexual harassment in schools and higher institutions of learning by formulating a policy and procedure in eschewing sexual harassment in schools in particular and society in general in the country. Hence, this paper elaborately explicates the various issues relating to sexual harassment in the Malaysian schools and higher institutions of learning and further, the various approaches towards its prevention.

Keywords: Sexual Harassment, Educational Institution, Causes and Solutions

Kaynakça

  • Adams-Curtis LE, Forbes GB. (2004). College women's experiences of sexual coercion: A review of cultural, perpetrator, victim, and situational variables. Trauma Violence & Abuse.5, pp. 91–122.
  • American Association of University Women Educational Foundation, Hostile Hallways, The AAUW Survey on Sexual Harassment in America's Schools, 1993 at 5; Kathryn Scott, "Seventy Five Years Later Gender- Based Harassment in Schools" (1995) 59 Social Education 293 at 293.
  • American Association of University Women. (2006). Drawing the line: Sexual Harassment on Campus. Washington, DC.
  • Amir, A., &Latiff, M. (1984). Guidance and counseling in Malaysian schools: A review and critique .In Third Asian workshop on child and adolescent development (Vol. 2, pp. 1–18).Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Universiti Malaysia, Faculty of Education.
  • Ashgar Ali Ali Mohamed, MuzaffarSyah Mallow and Farheen Baig Sardar Baig (2012).Sexual Harassment at the Workplace in Malaysia, Selangor.The Malaysian Current Law Journal Sdn Bhd., pp. 80-101.
  • Berdahl, J. L., Magley, V. J., & Waldo, C. R. (1996). The Sexual Harassment of Men? Exploring the Concept With Theory and Data. Psychology of Women Quarterly.20, 527–547.
  • Campbell, R. (2005).What really happened? A validation study of rape survivors’ help-seeking experiences with the legal and medical systems.Violence and Victims, 20, 55-68.
  • Chukwudi, F.& Gbakorun, A. A. (2011). “Indecent Dressing and Sexual Harassment Among Undergraduates of Nasarawa State University, Keffi” Vol 3, No. 2 Journal of Sociology, Psychology and Anthropology in Practice 25.
  • Cortina, L. M., &Wasti, S. A. (2005). Profiles in Coping: Responses to Sexual Harassment across Persons, Organizations, and Cultures. Journal of Applied Psychology.90, 182-192.
  • Dermen KH, Cooper ML. (1994a). Sex-related alcohol expectancies among adolescents: I. Scale development. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. 8, pp. 152–160.
  • Dziech, Billie Wright, Weiner, Linda. (1990). The Lecherous Professor: Sexual Harassment on Campus. Chicago Illinois: University of Illinois Press.
  • Equal Opportunity Policy and Discrimination and Sexual Harassment Procedure, Monash University Sunway Campus. Retrieved from http://www.monash.edu.my/executive-services/policy/business- rules/rules-for- discrimination-and-sexual-harassment-procedure.html. (December 27, 2012).
  • Fitzgerald, L. F, &Shullman, S. L. (1993). “Sexual harassment: A research analysis and agenda for the 1990s” Journal of Vocational Education, 42, 5–27.
  • Frazier, P.A. (1990). Victim attributions and postrape trauma.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.59, 298-304.
  • Frazier, P.A. (2000). The role of attributions and perceived control in recovery from rape.Journal of Personal and Interpersonal Loss, 5, pp. 203-225.
  • Gutek, B. A & Koss, M. P. (1993). Changed woman and changed organization: Consequences of and coping with sexual harassment. Journal of Vocational Behaviour. 42, 28-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1993.1003.
  • Huerta et al. (2006): Sex and Power in the academy: Modeling Sexual Harassment in the lives of College women, Society for personality and social psychology bulletin. 616-628.
  • International Islamic University Malaysia (2004). Student’s Discipline Rules, section 30.
  • International Islamic University Malaysia (2005). Staff Disciplinary Rules (Amendment 2012). Retrieved from http://www.iium.edu.my/legalunit. (December 27, 2012).
  • Jennifer L. Brown, M.S. and Peter A. VanableAlcohol Use, Partner Type, and Risky Sexual Behavior among College Students: Findings from an Event-Level Study.
  • Katz EC, Fromme K, D'Amico EJ. (2000). Effects of outcome expectancies and personality on young adults’ illicit drug use, heavy drinking, and risky sexual behavior. Cognitive Therapy and Research.24, pp. 1–22.
  • Lavanian Nathan Jothy (2010). Sexual Harassment as Discrimination. File:///C:/Users/MySystem/Documents/Malaysian%20Law%20Since%201997.html.
  • Muhammad Nazari Ismail, Lee KumChee and Chan Foong Bee (2007). Factors influencing sexual harassment in Malaysian workplace, Asian Academy of Management Journal, Kuala Lumpur: Universiti Malaya, p. 5.
  • National Center on Domestic and Sexual Violence. (2006). Family Violence in Later Life: Power and Control Wheel. http://www.ncdsv.org/ images/SeniorCitizenPCWheelNOSHADING-NCDSV.pdf.
  • Ng, C., Jamilah Othman (2002). Unwanted and Unwelcome: Sexual Harassment in the Malaysian Workplace. Gender Technology and Development 6, 389-406.
  • Osman, Suzanne L. (2004). ‘‘Victim Resistance: Theory and Data on Understanding Perceptions of Sexual Harassment.’’ Sex Roles 50:267-75.
  • Pryor, John B. and Louise F. Fitzgerald (2003). ‘‘Sexual Harassment Research in the United States.’’ Pp. 79-100 in Bullying and Emotional Abuse in the Workplace: International Perspectives in Research and Practice, edited by S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, and C. L. Cooper. London: Taylor and Francis.
  • Richard S. Rosenberg (1993). Free speech, pornography, sexual harassment, and electronic networks The Information Society: An International Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp. 285- 331.
  • Sigal, J. et. al (2005). Cross-Cultural Reactions to Academic Sexual Harassment: Effects of Individualist vs. Collectivist Culture and Gender of Participants. Sex Roles, 52 (3)202- 215.
  • Straight, E.S., et al. (2003).The Impact of Partner Psychological Abuse on Health Behaviors and Health Status in College Women.Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 18(9), 1035-1054.

Yıl 2015, Cilt 1, Sayı 1, 17 - 26, 18.04.2015
https://doi.org/10.18769/ijasos.38340

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Adams-Curtis LE, Forbes GB. (2004). College women's experiences of sexual coercion: A review of cultural, perpetrator, victim, and situational variables. Trauma Violence & Abuse.5, pp. 91–122.
  • American Association of University Women Educational Foundation, Hostile Hallways, The AAUW Survey on Sexual Harassment in America's Schools, 1993 at 5; Kathryn Scott, "Seventy Five Years Later Gender- Based Harassment in Schools" (1995) 59 Social Education 293 at 293.
  • American Association of University Women. (2006). Drawing the line: Sexual Harassment on Campus. Washington, DC.
  • Amir, A., &Latiff, M. (1984). Guidance and counseling in Malaysian schools: A review and critique .In Third Asian workshop on child and adolescent development (Vol. 2, pp. 1–18).Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Universiti Malaysia, Faculty of Education.
  • Ashgar Ali Ali Mohamed, MuzaffarSyah Mallow and Farheen Baig Sardar Baig (2012).Sexual Harassment at the Workplace in Malaysia, Selangor.The Malaysian Current Law Journal Sdn Bhd., pp. 80-101.
  • Berdahl, J. L., Magley, V. J., & Waldo, C. R. (1996). The Sexual Harassment of Men? Exploring the Concept With Theory and Data. Psychology of Women Quarterly.20, 527–547.
  • Campbell, R. (2005).What really happened? A validation study of rape survivors’ help-seeking experiences with the legal and medical systems.Violence and Victims, 20, 55-68.
  • Chukwudi, F.& Gbakorun, A. A. (2011). “Indecent Dressing and Sexual Harassment Among Undergraduates of Nasarawa State University, Keffi” Vol 3, No. 2 Journal of Sociology, Psychology and Anthropology in Practice 25.
  • Cortina, L. M., &Wasti, S. A. (2005). Profiles in Coping: Responses to Sexual Harassment across Persons, Organizations, and Cultures. Journal of Applied Psychology.90, 182-192.
  • Dermen KH, Cooper ML. (1994a). Sex-related alcohol expectancies among adolescents: I. Scale development. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. 8, pp. 152–160.
  • Dziech, Billie Wright, Weiner, Linda. (1990). The Lecherous Professor: Sexual Harassment on Campus. Chicago Illinois: University of Illinois Press.
  • Equal Opportunity Policy and Discrimination and Sexual Harassment Procedure, Monash University Sunway Campus. Retrieved from http://www.monash.edu.my/executive-services/policy/business- rules/rules-for- discrimination-and-sexual-harassment-procedure.html. (December 27, 2012).
  • Fitzgerald, L. F, &Shullman, S. L. (1993). “Sexual harassment: A research analysis and agenda for the 1990s” Journal of Vocational Education, 42, 5–27.
  • Frazier, P.A. (1990). Victim attributions and postrape trauma.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.59, 298-304.
  • Frazier, P.A. (2000). The role of attributions and perceived control in recovery from rape.Journal of Personal and Interpersonal Loss, 5, pp. 203-225.
  • Gutek, B. A & Koss, M. P. (1993). Changed woman and changed organization: Consequences of and coping with sexual harassment. Journal of Vocational Behaviour. 42, 28-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1993.1003.
  • Huerta et al. (2006): Sex and Power in the academy: Modeling Sexual Harassment in the lives of College women, Society for personality and social psychology bulletin. 616-628.
  • International Islamic University Malaysia (2004). Student’s Discipline Rules, section 30.
  • International Islamic University Malaysia (2005). Staff Disciplinary Rules (Amendment 2012). Retrieved from http://www.iium.edu.my/legalunit. (December 27, 2012).
  • Jennifer L. Brown, M.S. and Peter A. VanableAlcohol Use, Partner Type, and Risky Sexual Behavior among College Students: Findings from an Event-Level Study.
  • Katz EC, Fromme K, D'Amico EJ. (2000). Effects of outcome expectancies and personality on young adults’ illicit drug use, heavy drinking, and risky sexual behavior. Cognitive Therapy and Research.24, pp. 1–22.
  • Lavanian Nathan Jothy (2010). Sexual Harassment as Discrimination. File:///C:/Users/MySystem/Documents/Malaysian%20Law%20Since%201997.html.
  • Muhammad Nazari Ismail, Lee KumChee and Chan Foong Bee (2007). Factors influencing sexual harassment in Malaysian workplace, Asian Academy of Management Journal, Kuala Lumpur: Universiti Malaya, p. 5.
  • National Center on Domestic and Sexual Violence. (2006). Family Violence in Later Life: Power and Control Wheel. http://www.ncdsv.org/ images/SeniorCitizenPCWheelNOSHADING-NCDSV.pdf.
  • Ng, C., Jamilah Othman (2002). Unwanted and Unwelcome: Sexual Harassment in the Malaysian Workplace. Gender Technology and Development 6, 389-406.
  • Osman, Suzanne L. (2004). ‘‘Victim Resistance: Theory and Data on Understanding Perceptions of Sexual Harassment.’’ Sex Roles 50:267-75.
  • Pryor, John B. and Louise F. Fitzgerald (2003). ‘‘Sexual Harassment Research in the United States.’’ Pp. 79-100 in Bullying and Emotional Abuse in the Workplace: International Perspectives in Research and Practice, edited by S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, and C. L. Cooper. London: Taylor and Francis.
  • Richard S. Rosenberg (1993). Free speech, pornography, sexual harassment, and electronic networks The Information Society: An International Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp. 285- 331.
  • Sigal, J. et. al (2005). Cross-Cultural Reactions to Academic Sexual Harassment: Effects of Individualist vs. Collectivist Culture and Gender of Participants. Sex Roles, 52 (3)202- 215.
  • Straight, E.S., et al. (2003).The Impact of Partner Psychological Abuse on Health Behaviors and Health Status in College Women.Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 18(9), 1035-1054.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Ashgar Ali MOHAMED Bu kişi benim

Yayımlanma Tarihi 18 Nisan 2015
Başvuru Tarihi 28 Mart 2015
Kabul Tarihi
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2015, Cilt 1, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

EndNote %0 International E-Journal of Advances in Social Sciences Sexual Harassment in Malaysian Educational Institutions: Causes and Solutions %A Ashgar Ali Mohamed %T Sexual Harassment in Malaysian Educational Institutions: Causes and Solutions %D 2015 %J IJASOS- International E-journal of Advances in Social Sciences %P 2411-183X-2411-183X %V 1 %N 1 %R doi: 10.18769/ijasos.38340 %U 10.18769/ijasos.38340

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