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LEXICAL COHESION IN SADEGH HEDAYAT’S LETTERS: THE EFFECT OF BIPOLAR MOOD DISORDER

Yıl 2019, Cilt 5, Sayı 14, 908 - 914, 15.09.2019
https://doi.org/10.18769/ijasos.591911

Öz

This paper makes an attempt to investigate the effect of bipolar mood disorder on the basis of using the lexical cohesion elements (that is, repetition, synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy, and collocation) in a case study approach based on the fact that approximately one percent of people suffer from this kind of affective disorder. Specifically, a large number of artists are afflicted by the very disorder presumably due to their creativity. The private letters of Sadegh Hedayat, mostly known as an Iranian eminent writer suffering from bipolar mood disorder, to Shahid Nourai, one of his friends, are selected as the material of the study. The addressee is kept fixed noticeably to remove the effective linguistic features. Sadegh Hedayat’s letters have been studied regarding mentioned linguistic elements in terms of two major bipolar mood disorder episodes (that is to say, hypomanic and depressive). In the study, all the letters related to hypomanic and depressive episodes are investigated using the elements of lexical cohesion. Furthermore, all the words on the basis of the elements with respect to various ties, i.e. immediate, mediate, and remote, are counted and the averages are evaluated using SPSS with the aim of finding any noteworthy result to discover whether specific psychological mood affects the use of certain lexical cohesion elements or not. Moreover, it explores whether there is any significant difference between bipolar mood disorder and schizophrenia on the basis of previous studies. The statistical analysis shows a highly significant difference concerning antonymy and hyponymy between hypomania and depression. No significant difference is found with respect to repetition, synonymy, and collocation. In addition, the results suggest that the text analyzed in the research is cohesive as regards bipolar mood disorder in contrast to those studies conducted related to schizophrenia.


Kaynakça

  • Clark, L., Iversen, S.D., Goodwin, G.M. (2001). “The Influence of Positive and Negative Mood States on Risk Taking, Verbal Fluency, and Salivary Cortisol”. Journal of Affective Disorders, 63, 179-187. Esmaeelpour, E & Sasani F. (2016). “The Effect of Bipolar Mood Disorder on Sadegh Hedayat's Letters”. Journal of psycholinguistic research, 45, 367-377. DOI: 10.1007/s10936-015-9355-5 Esmaeelpour, E & Ghatreh. F, Nourbakhsh. M. (2017). “Linguistic Study of Negative Affixes in Sadegh Hedayat’s Letters: The Effect of Bipolar Mood Disorder”. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 46, 1385-1395. DOI: 10.1007/s10936-017-9503-1 Fadai, F. (2009). “Sadegh Hedayat from the Descriptive Psychiatry Viewpoint”. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 3, 19-26. Goss, J. (2006). “Poetics of Bipolar Disorder”. Pragmatics & Cognition”, 14, 83-110. DOI: 10.1075/pc.14.1.06gos Halliday, M. & R. Hasan (1976). Cohesion in English. London: Longman. Halliday, M. (1985). An Introduction to Functional Grammer. London: Edward Arnold. Jamison, K. R. (1995). “Manic-Depressive Illness and Creativity”. Scientific American, 272, 125-134. Jones, S., Hayward P., & Lam D. (2002). Coping with Bipolar Disorder: A Guide to Living with Manic Depression, Oxford: Oneworld Publication. Landis, C. (1964). Varieties of Psychopathological Experience, New York: Rinehart and Winston. Miklowitz, D. J. (2001). “Bipolar Disorder”, In D. Barlow (ed.), Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders. (pp. 523–562). NY: Guilford Press. Pakdaman, N. (2000). Sadegh Hedayat: 82 Letters to Hasan Shahid Nouraie (2nd Ed.). Paris: Cheshmandaz (In Persian). Ragin AB, Oltmanns TF. (1986). “Lexical Cohesion and Formal Thought Disorder During and After Psychotic Episodes”. J Abnorm Psychol, (95), 181-183. DOI: 10.1037/0021-843X.95.2.181 Ragin AB, Oltmanns TF. (1987). “Communicability and Thought Disorder in Schizophrenics and Other Diagnostic Groups: A Follow-up Study”. Br Psychiatry, 150, 494–500. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.150.4.494 Sadock, B. J., & Sadock, V. A. (2010). Kaplan Pocket Handbook of Clinical Psychiatry (5th ed.). Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Sanfillippo, L. C., & Hoffman, R.E. (1999). “Language Disorders in The Psychoses”. In F. Fabbro (ed), Concise Encyclopedia of Language Pathology (pp. 400–407). Oxford: Elsevier Science. Thomas P. (1995). “Thought Disorder or Communication Disorder? Linguistic Science Provides a New Approach”. Br J Psychiatry, (166), 287–290.

Yıl 2019, Cilt 5, Sayı 14, 908 - 914, 15.09.2019
https://doi.org/10.18769/ijasos.591911

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Clark, L., Iversen, S.D., Goodwin, G.M. (2001). “The Influence of Positive and Negative Mood States on Risk Taking, Verbal Fluency, and Salivary Cortisol”. Journal of Affective Disorders, 63, 179-187. Esmaeelpour, E & Sasani F. (2016). “The Effect of Bipolar Mood Disorder on Sadegh Hedayat's Letters”. Journal of psycholinguistic research, 45, 367-377. DOI: 10.1007/s10936-015-9355-5 Esmaeelpour, E & Ghatreh. F, Nourbakhsh. M. (2017). “Linguistic Study of Negative Affixes in Sadegh Hedayat’s Letters: The Effect of Bipolar Mood Disorder”. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 46, 1385-1395. DOI: 10.1007/s10936-017-9503-1 Fadai, F. (2009). “Sadegh Hedayat from the Descriptive Psychiatry Viewpoint”. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 3, 19-26. Goss, J. (2006). “Poetics of Bipolar Disorder”. Pragmatics & Cognition”, 14, 83-110. DOI: 10.1075/pc.14.1.06gos Halliday, M. & R. Hasan (1976). Cohesion in English. London: Longman. Halliday, M. (1985). An Introduction to Functional Grammer. London: Edward Arnold. Jamison, K. R. (1995). “Manic-Depressive Illness and Creativity”. Scientific American, 272, 125-134. Jones, S., Hayward P., & Lam D. (2002). Coping with Bipolar Disorder: A Guide to Living with Manic Depression, Oxford: Oneworld Publication. Landis, C. (1964). Varieties of Psychopathological Experience, New York: Rinehart and Winston. Miklowitz, D. J. (2001). “Bipolar Disorder”, In D. Barlow (ed.), Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders. (pp. 523–562). NY: Guilford Press. Pakdaman, N. (2000). Sadegh Hedayat: 82 Letters to Hasan Shahid Nouraie (2nd Ed.). Paris: Cheshmandaz (In Persian). Ragin AB, Oltmanns TF. (1986). “Lexical Cohesion and Formal Thought Disorder During and After Psychotic Episodes”. J Abnorm Psychol, (95), 181-183. DOI: 10.1037/0021-843X.95.2.181 Ragin AB, Oltmanns TF. (1987). “Communicability and Thought Disorder in Schizophrenics and Other Diagnostic Groups: A Follow-up Study”. Br Psychiatry, 150, 494–500. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.150.4.494 Sadock, B. J., & Sadock, V. A. (2010). Kaplan Pocket Handbook of Clinical Psychiatry (5th ed.). Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Sanfillippo, L. C., & Hoffman, R.E. (1999). “Language Disorders in The Psychoses”. In F. Fabbro (ed), Concise Encyclopedia of Language Pathology (pp. 400–407). Oxford: Elsevier Science. Thomas P. (1995). “Thought Disorder or Communication Disorder? Linguistic Science Provides a New Approach”. Br J Psychiatry, (166), 287–290.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Elmira ESMAEELPOUR
Iran


Fariba GHATREH Bu kişi benim (Sorumlu Yazar)
Iran

Yayımlanma Tarihi 15 Eylül 2019
Başvuru Tarihi 15 Temmuz 2019
Kabul Tarihi 5 Eylül 2019
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019, Cilt 5, Sayı 14

Kaynak Göster

EndNote %0 International E-Journal of Advances in Social Sciences LEXICAL COHESION IN SADEGH HEDAYAT’S LETTERS: THE EFFECT OF BIPOLAR MOOD DISORDER %A Elmira Esmaeelpour , Fariba Ghatreh %T LEXICAL COHESION IN SADEGH HEDAYAT’S LETTERS: THE EFFECT OF BIPOLAR MOOD DISORDER %D 2019 %J IJASOS- International E-journal of Advances in Social Sciences %P 2411-183X-2411-183X %V 5 %N 14 %R doi: 10.18769/ijasos.591911 %U 10.18769/ijasos.591911

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