The research about the determinants of performance keeps on being educational and social interest. The relationship between emotional intelligence and aptitudes in academic performance is not sufficiently demonstrated, as we do not have conclusive data about the differences of gender in these variables. We also should take into account that we keep finding contradictory data in our literature reviews. In our study we will try to bring some clarity to this issue. Our purpose was on the one hand, to determine whether there are differences by gender in emotional intelligence, aptitudes and mathematical performance and, on the other hand, check if there is a relationship between the emotional intelligence aptitudes and the mathematical performance, and finally, we wanted to determine if the emotional intelligence and aptitudes are predictive variables of the performance in mathematics in students of 6th year of primary education. The sample was made up of a total of 34 students (38% girls and 62% boys) of this educational stage, with an average age of 11.5 years. The instruments used were: TMMS-24, BADyG-E3 and qualification lists in the subject of mathematics. Data collection was performed during the class in 4 sessions of about one hour. Descriptive, correlational and predictive data analysis were made. In the results, we describe the sample of students, their emotional intelligence profile, aptitudes and average performance in mathematics; the influence of gender on emotional intelligence, aptitudes and mathematical performance, and predictive value of emotional intelligence and aptitudes in the performance in this area of the curriculum of primary school. The data are discussed because of its importance in explaining the poor performance in mathematics of Spanish students in international tests (PISA, TIMSS), as well as promoting emotional intelligence and differential aptitudes of students as factors of academic success.