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CHROMATIC ANALYSIS OF THE BYZANTINE FACE

Yıl 2016, Cilt: 2 Sayı: 5, 324 - 330, 26.08.2016

Öz

The present paper is focusing on a detailed analysis of the chromatic Byzantine face, from an esthetic and technical perspective.

From an esthetic point of view, we can distinguish two directions in the chromatics of the Byzantine face: the first one can easily be observed in the Paleologos period, and the second one is reflected in the paintings originating from Crete, due to the famous painter Teofan of Crete (Cretanul). The major chromatic differences lie in the colour accents used during the two periods. The chromatic analysis focuses both on tint fusions and on the chemical composition of the pigments used in the making of the respective tints. Thus, we can compare each accent of the face originating in the Paleologos period with its correspondent from Crete, meaning: the proplasma, the semi-tint, the flesh colour, and the lights. We can distinguish visible differences that emerge in the level of proplasma or of the tint. (The background of the face)

If in the Paleologos period, the face proplasma was shaded green, in the paintings originating in Crete, it changes into delicate, siena shades. First, the detailed and optic analysis is based on the comparison of the traditional recipes, and then it is scientifically based on a sample of specific pigments, used in paintings originating in the two periods. The pigments are spectrometrically analyzed through X-ray fluorescence, constantly comparing the results. Thus, it results that the green proplasma (Paleologos period) is obtained by mixing black with green (chromium green oxide, Cr203) and ochre (natural, mineral pigments, earth or clay with a certain content of hydrated iron oxide, Fe2 03 n H2O). And the proplasmas of the faces in the paintings originating in Crete are obtained from clay substances called siena. The next accents (the flesh colour and lights) are pure ochres, afterwards being mixed with white. Over these two accents, we can identify a shift in the faces painted by Teofan of Crete. He uses the same proplasmas, but, in some paintings, he removes the flesh colour (the ochre), the lights being directly applied over the proplasma. This method is unique in the history of Byzantine painting, Teofan, thus, creating a true light Impressionism.

In conclusion, this paper, by following the traditional recipes embedded deep into the Byzantine painting, manages to create optic analysis of the chromatics of the Byzantine faces, strengthening them with the chemical analysis of the used pigments. Thus, we witness the emergence of two directions: the Paleologos period and the one dominated by Crete art, with a third direction, isolated and unique, created by Teofan of Crete.

Keywords: Byzantine face, chromatics, colour, pigments.

Kaynakça

  • Cavarnos, Constantine, (2005), Ghid de iconografie bizantină, Sophia, Bucharest.
  • Cennino Cennini, (1977), Tratatul de pictură, Meridiane Bucharest.
  • Delvoye, Charles,(1976), Arta Bizantină, vol. I, II, Meridiane, Bucharest.
  • Dionisie din Furna,(2000),Erminia picturii bizantine, Sophia, Bucharest.
  • Sendler, Egon,(2005),Icoana, chipul nevăzutului, Sofhia, Bucharest.
  • Marincaş, Octaviana,(2003), Investigaţii ştiinţifice apicate bunurilor de patrimoniu, Performantica, Iaşi.
  • Schlumberger, Gustve Leon, (1890), l’Epopee byzantine a la fin dixieme siecle, vol.2, Paris Firmin-Didot, Paris.
  • Lăzărescu, Liviu,(2009),Culoarea în artă, Editura Polirom, Buchares.
  • Lothe, A,(1969),Tratate despre peisaj şi figură, Editura Meridiane,Buchares.
  • Vasiliev, Aleksandr. A, ( 2010), Istoria Imperiului bizantin, Editura Polirom. Bucharest.
  • Văetişi, Adela, (2008) Arta de tradiție Bizantină în România, Editura Noi, Bucharest.
  • http://www.crestinortodox.ro/liturgica/pictura/teofan-cretanul-calugar-pictor-98193.html
  • http://www.crestinortodox.ro/religie/teofan-grecul-iconarul-celor-nevazute-98774.html

Yıl 2016, Cilt: 2 Sayı: 5, 324 - 330, 26.08.2016

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Cavarnos, Constantine, (2005), Ghid de iconografie bizantină, Sophia, Bucharest.
  • Cennino Cennini, (1977), Tratatul de pictură, Meridiane Bucharest.
  • Delvoye, Charles,(1976), Arta Bizantină, vol. I, II, Meridiane, Bucharest.
  • Dionisie din Furna,(2000),Erminia picturii bizantine, Sophia, Bucharest.
  • Sendler, Egon,(2005),Icoana, chipul nevăzutului, Sofhia, Bucharest.
  • Marincaş, Octaviana,(2003), Investigaţii ştiinţifice apicate bunurilor de patrimoniu, Performantica, Iaşi.
  • Schlumberger, Gustve Leon, (1890), l’Epopee byzantine a la fin dixieme siecle, vol.2, Paris Firmin-Didot, Paris.
  • Lăzărescu, Liviu,(2009),Culoarea în artă, Editura Polirom, Buchares.
  • Lothe, A,(1969),Tratate despre peisaj şi figură, Editura Meridiane,Buchares.
  • Vasiliev, Aleksandr. A, ( 2010), Istoria Imperiului bizantin, Editura Polirom. Bucharest.
  • Văetişi, Adela, (2008) Arta de tradiție Bizantină în România, Editura Noi, Bucharest.
  • http://www.crestinortodox.ro/liturgica/pictura/teofan-cretanul-calugar-pictor-98193.html
  • http://www.crestinortodox.ro/religie/teofan-grecul-iconarul-celor-nevazute-98774.html

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Dorin Grecu

Yayımlanma Tarihi 26 Ağustos 2016
Gönderilme Tarihi 24 Ağustos 2016
Kabul Tarihi
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2016Cilt: 2 Sayı: 5

Kaynak Göster

EndNote %0 International E-Journal of Advances in Social Sciences CHROMATIC ANALYSIS OF THE BYZANTINE FACE %A Dorin Grecu %T CHROMATIC ANALYSIS OF THE BYZANTINE FACE %D 2016 %J IJASOS- International E-journal of Advances in Social Sciences %P 2411-183X-2411-183X %V 2 %N 5 %R %U

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